Said a representative of The Enough Project , another human rights group , In eastern Congo , you see child miners [ with ] no health or safety…

Please read and answer the following questions.

Who is responsible for the atrocities being perpetrated in The Democratic Republic of Congo?

To what degree or extent and why?

what that party/those parties can or should be doing.

Make sure to consider the full scope and implications of globalization.

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Said a representative of The Enough Project , another human rights group , "In easternCongo , you see child miners [ with ] no health or safety standards . Minerals are dug byhand , traded in sacks , smuggled across borders . "Once mined – whether in the Congo or elsewhere – raw coltan made its way through acomplex , multistep global supply chain . Local traders sold to regional traders , who shippedthe ore to processing companies such as H.C. Starck ( Germany ) , Cabot Corporation*( United States ) , and Ningxia ( China ) . Their smelters produced refined tantalum powder ,which was then sold to parts makers such as Kemet ( United States ) , Epcos ( Germany ) , andFlextronics ( Singapore ) . They sold , in turn , to original equipment manufacturers such asDell ( United States ) , Sony ( Japan ) , and Nokia ( Finland ) .*By the time coltan reached the end of this convoluted supply chain , determining itssource was nearly impossible . Steve Jobs , then the CEO of Apple , commented in an e- mailin 2010 , "We require all of our suppliers to certify in writing that they use conflict – free*materials . But honestly there is no way for them to be sure . Until someone invents a way tochemically trace minerals from the source mine , it’s a very difficult problem . "As public awareness of atrocities in the Congo grew , governments began to take action .The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development , an alliance of mostlyEuropean nations , issued guidance for companies that wished to responsibly source min -erals . In 2010 , the U.S. Congress passed the Wall Street Reform and Consumer ProtectionAct ( also known as the Dodd -Frank Act , and further discussed in Chapters 7 and 13 ) . Thislaw included a provision , Section 1502 , which required companies to disclose whethertantalum , tin , tungsten , and gold used in their products had come from the DRC or adjoin -ing countries . Companies were required to file their first Section 1502 reports in 2014( although some business groups had sued to overturn the requirement , saying it was tooburdensome ) .Companies also acted . For its part , Intel sent teams to more than 86 smelters and refin -ers in 2 1 countries , educating their partners about conflict minerals and collecting infor -mation about the origin of raw materials they processed . The company collaborated withother companies in the Electronics Industry Citizenship Coalition ( EICC ) to develop aConflict -Free Smelter Assessment Program , a voluntary system in which an independent*third – party auditor evaluated smelters and refiners and designated them as conflict-free .Minerals would be "bagged and tagged " and then tracked through each step of the supplychain .Intel was particularly concerned that it exclude from its products only conflict miner -als , not those coming from legitimate mines in conflict areas . To this end , it worked withgovernment agencies and civil society organizations , including the U.S. State Department*and RESOLVE , an NGO working to map the conflict mineral supply chain , to form thePublic – Private Alliance for Responsible Minerals Trade . This multisector initiative workedto support responsible mines and to develop effective chain- of-custody programs in theCongo . In a statement published on its website , Intel said it "believes that an effectivesolution to the complex issue of conflict minerals will require coordinated efforts by gov -ernments , industry , and NGOS . ‘"Sources : " Intel ‘s Efforts to Achieve a Conflict -Free Supply Chain , " White Paper , 2014 , www . intel . com ; " Intel Unveils Conflict -Free Processors : Will the Industry Follow Suit ? " The Guardian , January 13 , 2014 ; " Companies Detail Use of " Conflict " Metals , "The Wall Street Journal , June 4 , 2014 ; " Where Apple Gets the Tantalum for Your iphone , " Newsweek , February 4 , 2015 ; PeterEichstaedt , Consuming the Congo ( Chicago : Lawrence Hill , 201 1 ) ; Michael Nest , Coltan ( Cambridge , UK : Polity Press , 2017 ) ; TheEnough Project , " Conflict Minerals , " www. enoughproject . org ; " Tracing a Path Forward : A Study of the Challenges of the SupplyChain for Target Markets Used in Electronics , " RESOLVE , April 2010 , http : / / eicc info / documents / RESOLVE Report 4 . 10 .10 . pdf ;and Global Witness , Faced with a Gun , What Can You Do ? July 2009 , www . globalwitness . org ."

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