The government of Blefuscu announces that the unemployment rate fell from 2005 to 2006. The government says this is positive news as it shows more jobs are being created and less people are unemployed. The labour unions, on the other hand, disagreed with this assessment and stated that they could find no evidence that additional jobs have been created between 2005 and 2006.
Your task is to explain how the unemployment rate can fall even if there are no new jobs being created. First, using the numbers you have been given in 1A as the 2005 figures, fill in the table below by developing a set of numbers that show how the unemployment rate can fall even if there are no new jobs being created. Assume no change between 2005 and 2006 in the population, percentage of part time workers and working age population. Second, discuss in detail how the numbers show the unemployment rate can fall even if there are no new jobs being created. List two possible reasons why this may occur.
2. Economists are deeply puzzled by our desire to have children. First, kids are really expensive – the biggest financial decision most couples will make. Forget the cost of buying the family home; the kids you choose to populate it with will end up costing just as much, or more, over a lifetime. A survey released last week by AMP and the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling found the typical Australian family spent $812,000 raising two kids. This is an increase of nearly 50 per cent in just six years. …Economists like to assume we are rational individuals who make decisions based on anticipated costs and benefits.
-The Sunday Mail (Qld) May 26 2013
You are the senior Economic advisor to the Prime Minister who is currently considering how to reduce the cost of having children and promote more economic growth. Some of her party want to continue John Howard’s “baby bonus” scheme that provides a lump sum of cash to parents upon the birth of a child. Others argue that the government should instead aim to focus on lowering the costs of educating children by making tertiary education free.
Discuss how each of these options will affect wages and labour productivity, potential GDP and real GDP. Will they lead to growth in real GDP and rises in real GDP per capita? use the potential GDP and labour market diagrams in your answer. Imagine that whatever strategy will be chosen, it will be kept for the next three decades. In terms of achieving growth in the long run, discuss which strategy would lead to higher growth rates and explain why How would each strategy affect the standard of living?